History[ edit ] Enlightened absolutism is the theme of an essay by Frederick the Greatwho ruled Prussia from todefending this system of government. He believed that an enlightened monarchy was the only real way for society to advance. Frederick was an enthusiast of French ideas.
A brilliant young French general, having already won fame with a series of victories for Revolutionary France in Italy Napoleon Bonaparte, was then busy fighting a fruitless war in Egypt. Hearing of the chaos, Napoleon abandoned his army and with geat fanfare returned to Paris a hero.
They overthrew the current Directory and replaced it with a new government: Sieyes and Napoleon both installed themselves as consuls, though the popular Napoleon became First Consul. A career warrior, Napoleon now claimed he only wanted peace.
At the time, Austria was the only continental country that remained at war with France. On JuneNapoleon led the French army against the Austrians at the battle of Marengo and emerged with a staggering victory.
The Cisalpine Republic was really a puppet-state controlled by France. On MarchFrance signed the Peace of Amiens with Britain, ending their warring, and briefly bringing Europe to peace, a rare occurrence in this violent period. As First Consul, Napoleon moved rapidly to institute order in France.
He put down rebellions in the French provinces. He created a secret police, led by Fouche. He centralized the government of the various French departments under a system of prefects.
To reduce the number of potential revolutionaries floating around Europe, he issued a general amnesty, allowing various exiles, from aristocrats to Jacobins, to return home. Napoleon ended the exclusion of the nobility from power that had been the trademark of earlier post- revolution regimes.
He simply wanted the best men he could find, even if they happened to be from aristocratic families. As an example, he took in Talleyrand as his foreign minister despite Talleyrand's aristocratic heritage.
Napoleon was not universally loved, however. On Christmas Eve,he was nearly killed by a bomb planted by conspirators wanting to restore the old Bourbon line of kings. Although it was clear that the plot had been royalist in origin, Napoleon felt more threatened by the Jacobins and used the event to persecute and intimidate them.
Though unreligious, inNapoleon signed a Concordat with the Catholic pope. This agreement smoothed over the rift between France and Rome the Revolution had causedin which the French state assumed control over appointment of bishops and confiscated church lands.
Napoleon did not give the property back, but he did make Catholicism the official religion of France, admitting, "the majority of France is Catholic. Even under this new agreement with the Church, Napoleon upheld religious tolerance, which remained a fundamental principle of French life under his "enlightened despotism.
He wanted government power to apply to everyone equally, legal class differences and hereditary government offices to be abolished, and salaries to be given to his bureaucrats, who were to be selected based on talent, not birth. Napoleon stabilized French currency by creating the Bank of France, and he simplified the tangle of French law by producing the Napoleonic Code.In this sense, Napoleon was an "enlightened despot": the best possible system of government, he thought, was absolutist–or "despotic"–rule by a wise–or "enlightened"–ruler; the ruler knew what was best for the people, while the people themselves often did not.
French Revolution, political upheaval of world importance in France that began in Origins of the Revolution Historians disagree in evaluating the factors that brought about the Revolution. [ 3 ] The family is the unit of the modern State. Woman is the heart and crown of the modern family.
In Mormonism womanhood has been outraged and crucified from Emma Smith to the last polygamous victim and martyr. is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her.
Jan 07, · OK, so this is a new post as well as a response to Sam's post and the comments people made on it. If we define a enlightened despot as a ruler who has absolute power, but also rules with the ideas of the Enlightenment, then Napoleon was enlightened.
Romantic and Enlightened themes are very common in fiction. For example, Enlightenment-flavored science fiction might portray the future as a world of progress, friendship, brotherhood and Crystal Spires and Togas, with barbaric forces threatening the new utopia (e.g. Star Trek).Romanticist-themed science fiction might portray the future as an unpleasant Crapsack World, with high technology.